Wattle-eyes are grouped in two distinct genera;Platysteira are medium-sized,flycatcher like and resembles batises,while Dyaphorophyia are much smaller,dumpy and short-tailed.Both genera have broad strong bills and conspicuous fleshy,colorful wattles above their eyes.
Now most of this family species are named after the females plumage, like the widespread Brown-throated Wattle-eye appearing above is named for the throat colour of the female.They are found in pairs,family groups or with mixed-species flock,usually in forest.
In Kenya,five species occurs, with three of them restricted to the tropical rain forest remnant of Kakamega.Brown-throated and Black-throated Wattle-eye are frequently encountered at the right habitat,but Jameson’s, Chestnut and Yellow-bellied Wattle-eye are a hard nut to crack in Kakakmega forest.
Watching Wattle-eyes for the first time foraging in the thick undergrowth of Africa tropical rain forest is an extraordinary experience.It will thoroughly blow your mind away.
African Jacana (Actophilornis africanus) is the common species on the shores of Lake Baringo,one will therefore understand my excitement with the sighting of Lesser Jacana is this area, a new thing for us.In birding we like that element of surprises!. My thinking is that the current flooding experienced in the Lake as encouraged this species to venture out.
Lesser Jacanan is the smallest of all Jacanas in the planet.Females are larger than males;infact in some species,they weigh two-third more.Jacanas sometimes described as lilytrotters are colourful,long-legged water birds that resemble rails and are found almost exclusively in tropical regions.Their long,spidery toes enables them to walk easily over lily pads or other floating plants,giving them the appearances of walking on water.
The species spend long periods foraging in aquatic vegetation.It prefer wetland habitat;also reedbed,swamp,and areas of deeper water with suitable surface cover.Occasionally,the birds are also seen in fields and agricultural areas near wetland.
With the only exception of Lesser Jacana, Jacanas are polyandrous in nature(female mate with more than one male) and they also exhibit sex-role reversal.Males tend the nest and care for chicks while the larger, more aggressive females defend the territory from predators. Researchers have theorized that jacanas may have evolved with this unorthodox system to compensate for a high rate of egg and chick loss, which typically is greater than 50% due to their unstable aquatic habitat and attacks by water snakes, turtles, and larger birds.
If females can spend less time sitting on the nest and more time mating with multiple partners, scientists argue, they can lay more eggs and contribute to the overall success of the species.
Other than this an expected sighting, Lesser Jacana are found in Kenya highlands wetland lands,ponds and man-made dams.
If you are visiting Nairobi for a business meeting or joining one of those international conference that happen in this city frequently or basically just started a new job in town then this is your best option of getting started with birding and safaris around the country.In this case long overnight trips aren’t absolutely necessary for great birding in Kenya. Oh yes, they can help and, for some places and birds, are necessary and awesome but they aren’t the only options. “Good birding” is where the habitat is, it’s what you want to see and how you feel like doing your birding. Long distance twitches can however arrange special expeditions to see rare birds in their wish list within this locality by emailing us through firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com .If you have a personal birding goals,we will be more than willing to arrange a personalized birding itineraries that will suit your goals.
The following are some of the options you have for day trips birding tours if you are stationed in Nairobi. I will always suggest an early start and if possible order a packed lunch if you plan to venture out for the whole day.
1. Nairobi National Park.
Nairobi national park lies only 7 kilometers from the city centre,and thus provides a useful starting place for any birdwatcher based in Nairobi.Although the park is only about 117 square kilometers in area it offers a wide variety of habitats which attract an excellent selection of birds .These habitats can be divided into natural and man-made dams and ponds,Open grassland plains,bush country and rock gorges,riverine woodland and highland forest.
With a good resident ornithologist (Guide)with a proper strategy you can easily see over 150 species of birds in a day visit to the park. Other than the great birding experience, the park also offer an incredible introduction to Africa big game and wildlife where you can easily see Zebras, Elands, Impalas, Heartbeest Lions, Buffalos,Giraffes, Rhinos, Leopards and with great luck Cheetahs.
2. Magadi Road,Olorgesailie Prehistoric Site and Lake Magadi
This is one of the most outstanding routes within a day’s drive of Nairobi both ornithologically and scenically.The 115 kilometers to lake magadi is on a good tarmac throughout.After leaving the Nairobi uplands the road crosses the end of the Ngong Hills before dropping down the side of the Rift Valley.The upland grassland habitat of the Ngong Hills gives way to the semi-arid bush country below. Frequent stops from now on will turn up an excellent selection of birds,particularly at the seasonal waterholes which attract large numbers of weavers,whydahs and finches.
Olorgesailie Archaeological site is well signposted to the left 65km from Nairobi,shortly after Oltepesi.Apart from its archaeological interest the site and immediate area hold good selections of birds.Large flocks of weavers and finches are attracted to a water bath set next to the rest area,and trail around the perimeter of the site is good for coursers,larks,and Ashy Cisticola .
Lake Magadi is a classic example of a Rift Valley soda lake,which being so close to Nairobi ,is a recommended place to visit.A certain proportion is worked by the Magadi Soda Company,but most of the lake is totally undisturbed.Large number of water birds congregate around the southern edges of the lake,flamingos being the most obvious,although many passage waders may be present.Lake Magadi is one of the best site to see the tiny Chestnut-banded Plover in Kenya.
3. Gatamaiyu Forest,Manguo Pond,Limuru and Kinangop Grassland.
This forest lies north of Nairobi at an altitude of 2200m,just beyond Gatamaiyu village . This forest provide a typical montane habitat and it can be cold and rainy sometimes, so a rain jacket and something warm cloths is a must.Examples birds likely to be seen in this forest includes; White-headed Wood Hoopoe,Abott Starling,Ayre’s Hawk Eagle,Bar-tailed Trogon, African Black Duck,Hartlaub’s Turaco Chestnut-throated Apalis and Cinnamon Chested Bee-eater among others.
Manguo Swamp (Limuru Pond) is a fairly extensive are of water thickly lined with reeds along one side.Large numbers of duck congregate here between October and February,many being migrants such as Pintail,Garganey and Shoveler.Maccoa Duck are regular breeders, along with Red-billed and Hottentot Teal.The reeds hold a good selection of herons,crakes and warblers,whilst the boggy margins attract migrant waders such as snipe and Green Sandpiper.Large numbers of swallows regularly feed over the pond,and often include more unusual species like Banded Sand and Plain Martin,Mosque and Grey-rumped Swallows.In addition, the scrub around the pond can be good for sunbirds,cisticolas and Finches.
Kinangop grassland is around 2300 meters above the sea level and can be incredibly windy and cold sometimes of the year.The flat,raised plains extend for miles as far as the Southern Aberdare in the east. The original tussock grasses and swamps that are found in this plains have been greatly reduced by extensive farming going on in this very productive agricultural area,but the landscape still supports a variety of bird species not easily seen elsewhere. The most sought-after of these are Long-tailed and Jackson’s Widowbirds and the endemic Sharpes’s Longclaw.
4. Lake Naivasha and Hell’s Gate National Park.
Lake Naivasha is a large freshwater Rift Valley lake situated some 80km north-west of Nairobi.Huge floating masses of papyrus continually changes the appearance of this lake,as do the fluctuations in the water level.The present high level has led to the loss of much of the interesting lakeside vegetation,but in turn has produced temporary muddy margins which can be excellent for wading birds.The lake is also invaded by water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes ,Coypu and Louisiana Red Crayfish which were introduced into the lake way back 1950’s.
Despite these changes, Lake Naivasha is still one of the most exciting bird-watching spots in Kenya.A wealth of water birds are to be found here throughout the year,but more especially during the winter months when good numbers of palaeactic ducks,waders,and terns can be present. Almost all the land bordering the lake is privately owned,but more than sufficient access is provided to birders.
Hell’s Gate National Park is the only park in Kenya where walking and cycling is permitted .Its habitat consist of a number of sheer columnar basaltic cliffs overlooking open grassland and thick bush.Augur Buzzard,Peregrine Falcon and Ruppell’s Griffon Vulture all breed here,along with large colonies of mottled and Nyanza Swifts.The Scrub below the cliffs holds several species of Cisticola,and Arrow-marked Babbler,whilst the grassland is good for Pipit and Schalow’s Wheatear. Herbivores are also plenty in this park. So Zebras,Giraffes,Elands,Impalas and both Thomson’s and Grant’s Gazelle are present.
Given the array of color presented by the male’s plumage the name seems appropriate: a pair of yellow bands on either side of a red chest, green on head and back, blue on the lower back and black on the belly and tail. The females are plumaged instead to be inconspicuous and safer from predators: yellowish chest and belly with gray-brown back. Beautiful sunbirds take flower nectar and insects as food. It is a very common species in arid and semi-arid regions of Kenya especially Samburu, Tsavo West,Lake Baringo and Amboseli.
They generally frequent flowering plants and therefore provide necessary conditions for photography.
Baringo, a shallow freshwater Lake, lies 110 km north of Nakuru town. 500 species of birds are one of its biggest draws. Baringo’s bird population rises and falls with the seasons. The dry season is normally the leanest time for birders, but the lakeshore resounds with birdsong at most times of year.
The shoreline is bursting with birds and photography is prime here because the birds quite approachable. Egrets, Herons, Kingfishers and Bee-eaters are the stars here.
If you are in the area at the right time of the year when the male Northern Red Bishop is on its full breeding plumage, you have the privilege to witness its courtship flight. Photographic opportunities are immense as the polygamous male tries to impress the females.
This species is sexually dimorphic and polygynous, with the males being particularly larger than the females. The genus Euplectes is notorious for sexually selected characteristics, including elaborate displays and elongated tail feathers. The bright orange-to-yellow plumage with a contrasting dark black pigment is for attracting mates.
Northern Red Bishop inhabits tall open or bushed grassland. It closely associated with giant grasses and a tall crop like millet and sorghum, but also occurs in open habitats with ranks weedy vegetation. At night it roost in thicket or tall grass. Enjoy your birding.
Samburu national reserve is one of the most impressive site to go birding in Kenya. Its proximity to Buffalo springs and Shaba national reserve makes it a nice base to explore the entire area extensively.
Whats give this country side life is the Ewaso Nyiro river that flows through the park. In the mid-mornings and afternoons, driving along the river on either side of the park will yield remarkable results from the stunning Kirk’s Dik dik, elegant Grevy’s zebra, reserved leopard to the gigantic elephants quenching their thirst.
African Orange-bellied Parrot is a star in this ecosystem that is hard to ignore because its high pitch call betrays its presence. They like to feed on the fruits of Kigelea africana trees that grows a long the river. This species is diamorphic in nature, with the orange belly being restricted to the males only!, females tend to have a uniformly green colour on their bellies.
Other than Samburu game reserve, this species can also be seen in Meru, Amboseli, Tsavo West and Tsavo East national park.
Longclaws are birds of African plains. They are easy to pick up when you are at the right location and habitat. Rosy-breasted (shown above) and Yellow-throated Longclaw are found in mid-altitude elevations. They are easily seen in Masai Mara game reserve and central Kenya grassland .
Pangani Longlaw is found in low altitude elevations and you have a great chance of seeing them in Nairobi, Amboseli and the Tsavos national park. However, it is important to note that I have seen on several occasion the Rosy-breasted, Yellow-throated and Pangani Longclaw in Amboseli national park.
Lastly the endemic Sharpe’s Longclaw is restricted to the high altitudes grassland of Kinangop.
Great White Pelicans Pelecanus onocrotalus are floating fishnets.The sack of membrane slug between the rims of the lower jaw inflates to an enormous ten-litre capacity when dragged under water.How the bird can even swim with it distended and full of water is a mystery.But clearly the system works.Odd bills seem to run in the family:DNA affinity testing reveals that the pelican’s cousin is the Shoebill Stork.
They fish in flotillas of up to 20 birds swim along in a oblique formation.That is the reason why you always see white pelicans in groups swimming at Lake Nakuru.
Bee-eaters are known chiefly for their graceful aerial pursuit of large insect. They birds that inhabit warm,sunny lowland grassland, dry woodland or forest edges. Bee-eaters are closely related to kingfishers and motmot.
Kenya’s impressive bird life offers plenty to interest both ornithologists and people who simply want to enjoy the diversity and colours, and for this alone, White-fronted Bee-eater is up there! The colored plumage is just a sight to behold!. These birds are also photogenic and very active and engaging mostly in the early hours of the morning or late afternoon.
Bee-eaters are social birds, occurring in pairs, small groups, or large foraging and breeding colonies.They forage from high vintage points including tree-tops,roadside wire, and telegraph poles,where they intently watch the area around and above them and dash out on swooping,gliding flights to grab passing insects.
In savannas where there are few high perches,several species, especially Carmine Bee-eater, sit on the backs of Kori Bustard (Ardeotis kori) and occasionally antelopes or larger animals, which also undoubtedly assist with flushing insects.
The tall, pink flamingos are an instantly recognizable group of birds, which have been known from earliest times and often celebrated in popular stories. They belong to one of the bird families, dating back at least 30 millions years, when their range extended to North America and Australia.
All species have a long, slender neck and tall, spindy legs, a fairly small body, and large, specially adopted, drooping bill. Their plumage varies between pale and deep rose-pink, with crimson and black wings.
Flamingos are extremely sociable and usually occur in large flocks. At times, they form the biggest concentration of non-passerine birds: on occasions, more than a million gather at feeding sites. The birds forage by wading knee-deep at the edges of alkaline or saline lakes and lagoons.
They turn their head upside down and sweep the bill through the water, sucking in mouthfuls. As they squeeze out excess water with their tongue, comb like structures called lamellae trap tiny particles of food.
Flamingos breed in large colonies at the edge of lakes or on island. In East Africa, the only reliable breeding site is Lake Natron in Northern Tanzania. The nest is circular mound of mud baked hard by the sun, into which the female lays on white egg. The chicks look like fluffy duck-lings on hatching, and are fed on a milky mash regurgitated by their parents.
After a few days, they join a large group of youngsters within the colony, but continue to be fed by their parents for about 10 weeks longer, until they can fly and become fully independent.